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辽宁高考试题及答案

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篇一:2014年高考真题――语文辽宁卷(逐题详解)

2014・辽宁卷(课标语文)

第Ⅰ卷 阅读题

甲 必考题

一、现代文阅读(9分,每小题3分)

[2014・辽宁卷] 阅读下面的文字,完成1~3题。

有人会说,幸福这个东西很难说,好像是很主观的感觉,很难有统一的标准。确实是这样,每个人对幸福的理解是不一样的。但是,你若深入地问为什么会不一样,其实还是有标准的。一个人对幸福的理解,从大的方面来说,其实是体现了价值观的,就是你究竟看重什么。

古希腊哲学家亚里士多德曾经说过:幸福是我们一切行为的终极目标,我们做所有的事情其实都是手段。一个人想要赚钱赚得多一点,这本身并不是目的,他是为了因此可以过上幸福的生活。有人可能就要反驳了:我不要那么多钱,也可以幸福。比如说我读几本好书,就会感到很幸福。其实对后一种人来说,读书就是他获得幸福的手段。

对于什么是幸福,西方哲学史上主要有两种看法、两个派别。一派叫作“快乐主义”,其创始人是古希腊哲学家伊壁鸠鲁。近代以来,英国的一些哲学家,如亚当〃斯密、约翰〃穆勒、休谟对此也有所阐发。这一派认为,幸福就是快乐。但什么是快乐?快乐就是身体的无痛苦和灵魂的无烦恼。身体健康、灵魂安宁就是快乐,就是幸福。他们还特别强调一点,人要从长远来看快乐,要理智地去寻求快乐。你不能为了追求一时的、眼前的快乐,而给自己埋下一个痛苦的祸根,结果得到的可能是更大的痛苦。另一派叫作“完善主义”。完善主义认为,幸福就是精神上的完善,或者说道德上的完善。他们认为人身上最高贵的部分,是人的灵魂,是人的精神。你要把这部分满足了,那才是真正的幸福。这一派的代表人物是苏格拉底、康德、黑格尔等,包括马克思,他们强调的是人的精神满足。

这两派有一个共同之处,那就是,都十分强调精神上的满足。如伊壁鸠鲁强调,物质欲望的满足本身不是快乐,物质欲望和生命本身的需要是两码事。生命需要得到满足那是一种快乐,但是超出生命需要的那些欲望反而是造成痛苦的根源。约翰〃穆勒则强调,幸福就是快乐,但是快乐是有质量和层次的区别的。一个人只有各种快乐都品尝过了,他才知道哪一种快乐更深刻、更持久、更强烈、更美好。

在中国哲学里,我感觉,道家比较接近“快乐主义”,尤其是庄子强调生命本身的快乐,还强调精神自由的快乐,与天地精神相往来的快乐。儒家比较接近“完善主义”,儒家认为人生的理想境界、最高的享受就是道德上的完善。

也有哲学家认为,幸福是根本不可能的。最典型的就是德国哲学家叔本华。他说人是受欲望支配的,欲望就意味着匮乏,你缺什么往往就对什么有欲望,而匮乏意味着痛苦。所以,欲望没有满足的时候你是痛苦的,但是欲望满足以后,人是不是就快乐了呢?非也。欲望满足以后是无聊。叔本华说,人生就像钟摆一样,在痛苦和无聊之间摇摆,幸福是不可能的。

如果我们仅仅从满足身体的、物质的欲望层面来理解的话,幸福确实是不可能的。但是如果我们超越欲望层面来看幸福,这个观点就不成立了。比如你非常爱读书,你渴望去读那些好书,你知道一些好书在等着你读,那个时候你会痛苦吗?你不会。读完了以后你会无聊吗?不会。你感到丰富了自己的精神,你会因此快乐。这就进一步说明,我们谈幸福问题,一定要超越纯粹欲望的层面,要从价值观角度去谈。

(摘编自周国平《幸福的哲学》)

1.下列有关“幸福”的表述,不符合原文意思的一项是( )

A.有人说,幸福好像是很主观的个人感觉。每个人对幸福的理解不尽相同,对幸福的认识也就很难有统一的标准。

B.按照古希腊哲学家亚里士多德的观点,幸福是一切行为的终极目标,我们做各种事

情其实都是获得幸福的手段。

C.亚当・斯密、约翰・穆勒一派认为幸福是身体无痛苦和灵魂无烦恼,而黑格尔等人乃至马克思的主张则与之相反。

D.西方“完善主义”认为,幸福就是精神上的完善,人们在满足自身灵魂、精神的需求后才能感受到真正的幸福。

1.C [解析] 本题考查理解文中重要词语或概念含义的能力。由原文第三、四段可知,亚当・斯密、约翰・穆勒一派认为“幸福就是快乐”;黑格尔、马克思等人认为“幸福就是精神上的完善,或者说道德上的完善”,二者的主张都“十分强调精神上的满足”,可见二者的主张并不是“相反”。

2.下列理解,不符合原文意思的一项是( )

A.近代以来,英国哲学家休谟等人认为,幸福就是快乐,但你若只追求一时的、眼前的快乐,最终你得到的也许是更大的痛苦。

B.伊壁鸠鲁认为,物质欲望的满足不能使人快乐,只有满足了生命本身需要的那种快乐才会更深刻、更持久、更强烈、更美好。

C.叔本华认为人生充满着痛苦和无聊,人受欲望支配,欲望没满足的时候你是痛苦的,而满足以后则无聊,幸福是根本不可能的。

D.在幸福这个问题上之所以众说纷纭,是因为每个人看重的不同。我们若仅从满足身体和物质欲望的层面理解,就不会有幸福感。

2.B [解析] 本题考查筛选文中信息的能力,属于定向筛选。由原文第四段可知,是约翰・穆勒认为“一个人只有各种快乐都品尝过了,他才知道哪一种快乐更深刻、更持久、更强烈、更美好”,并非伊壁鸠鲁认为“只有满足了生命本身需要的那种快乐才会更深刻、更持久、更强烈、更美好”。选项属于张冠李戴。

3.根据原文的内容,下列理解和分析不正确的一项是( )

A.西方“快乐主义”认为,身体健康、灵魂安宁让人们感到很快乐、很幸福,人们应该从长远的角度看待快乐,并理智地去寻求快乐和幸福。

B.中国哲学强调生命本身的快乐,也强调精神自由的快乐,以庄子为代表的道家思想属于“快乐主义”,庄子认为与天地精神往来快乐无限。

C.中国的儒家思想认为人生的理想境界、最高享受就是道德上的完善,这种思想和西方哲学家苏格拉底、康德等人强调的精神满足比较接近。

D.人们渴望得到幸福,但是想获得真正的幸福,一定要树立正确的价值观,摆脱纯粹物质欲望的支配,丰富精神的世界,寻求心灵的满足。

3.B [解析] 本题考查分析概括文章内容及作者在文中的观点态度的能力。原文第五段的表述是“道家比较接近‘快乐主义’”,而并非B项中表述的“道家思想属于‘快乐主义’”。

二、古代诗文阅读(36分)

(一)文言文阅读(19分)

[2014・辽宁卷] 阅读下面的文言文,完成4~7题。

赵立,徐州张益村人。以敢勇隶兵籍。靖康初,金人大入,盗贼群起,立数有战功,为武卫都虞候。建炎三年,金人攻徐,王复拒守,命立督战,中六矢,战益厉。城始破,立巷.

战,夺门以出,金人击之死,夜半得微雨而苏,乃杀守者,阴结乡民为收复计。金人北还,立率残兵邀击,断其归路,夺舟船金帛以千计,军声复振。乃尽结乡民为兵,遂复徐州。 .

时山东诸郡莽为盗区,立介居其间,威名流闻。会金左将军昌围楚州急,通守贾敦诗欲.

以城降,宣抚使杜充命立将所部兵往赴之。且战且行,连七战胜而后能达楚。两颊中流矢,不能言,以手指麾,既入城休士,而后拔镞。诏以立守楚州。明年正月,金人攻城,立命撤

废屋,城下然火池,壮士持长矛以待。金人登城,钩取投火中。金人选死士突入,又搏杀之,乃稍引退。五月,兀术北归,筑高台六合,以辎重假道于楚,立斩其使。兀术怒,乃设南北

①两屯,绝楚饷道。承、楚间有樊梁、新开、白马三湖,贼张敌万窟穴其间,立绝不与通,故楚粮道愈梗。始受围,菽麦野生,泽有凫茨可采,后皆尽,至屑榆皮食之。

立遣人诣朝廷告急。签书枢密院事赵鼎欲遣张俊救之,俊不肯行。乃命刘光世督淮南诸镇救楚。高宗览立奏,叹曰:“立坚守孤城,虽古名将无以逾之。”以书趣光世会兵者五,光世讫不行。金知外救绝,围益急。九月,攻东城,立登磴道以观,飞炮中其首,左右驰救之,立曰:“我终不能为国殄贼矣。”言讫而绝,年三十有七。众巷哭。金人疑立诈死,不敢动。越旬余,城始陷。

立家先残于徐,以单骑入楚。为人木强,不知书,忠义出天性。善骑射,不喜声色财利,

②与士卒均廪给。每战擐甲胄先登,有退却者,�鄱�斩之。仇视金人,言之必嚼齿而怒,所

俘获磔以示众。忠义之声远近皆倾下之,金人不敢斥其名。 .

讣闻,辍朝,谥忠烈。

(节选自《宋史・列传第二百七忠义三》)

[注] ①张敌万:盗贼首领。②擐(huàn):穿。

4.对下列句子中加点的词的解释,不正确的一项是(3分)( )

A.中六矢,战益厉 厉:激烈 .

B.立率残兵邀击 邀:阻截 .

C.立介居其间,威名流闻 流:传布 .

D.忠义之声远近皆倾下之 倾:钦佩 .

4.A [解析] 本题考查理解常见文言实词在文中的含义的能力。可采用代入法与排除法来解答。结合上下文,采用语境分析法可知,“战益厉”的描述对象是赵立,将“厉”解释为“激烈”显然是不合语境的,这里的“厉”应是“勇猛”的意思。

5.以下各组句子中,全都表明赵立“敢勇”的一组是(3分)( )

①城始破,立巷战 ②两颊中流矢,不能言,以手指麾 ③金人登城,钩取投火中 ④立斩其使 ⑤立家先残于徐,以单骑入楚 ⑥每战擐甲胄先登

A.①②⑥ B.①③⑤

C.②④⑤ D.③④⑥

5.A [解析] 本题考查筛选文中信息的能力。解答此类试题的前提是读懂题干和原文。题干明确了筛选的标准:赵立的“敢勇”。做此类题目时,可以采用排除法。其中③写的是“壮士”,⑤写的是赵立的悲惨际遇,排除含有这两句的选项后,可得出答案为A项。

6.下列对原文有关内容的概括和分析,不正确的一项是(3分)( )

A.赵立军事才能突出。在徐州保卫战中,他临危受命,抗击金军;绝地血战后及时整合乡民和残部的力量,击溃撤退中的敌军,收复徐州。

B.赵立为人正直,治军严明。在孤守楚州期间,虽然被金军重重围困,粮草、野菜全部吃光,但他和部下宁愿吃磨碎的榆树皮,也不扰民。

C.赵立屡建战功,威名显赫。皇帝看到他的奏章后,为他坚守孤城而感叹,认为即使是古代的名将也无法超越他。金人甚至不敢直呼其名。

D.赵立一生都怀有忠义报国之心。他痛恨金人,临终前还为自己不能继续为国杀敌而悲愤叹息。对于他的忠义,朝廷给予了非常高的评价。

6.B [解析] 本题考查分析概括文中内容的能力。原文是“兀术怒,乃设南北两屯,绝楚饷道”,并非“重重围困”。另外,“也不扰民”在文中并无相关信息。

7.把文中画横线的句子翻译成现代汉语。(10分)

(1)贼张敌万窟穴其间,立绝不与通,故楚粮道愈梗。

译文:________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

(2)以书趣光世会兵者五,光世讫不行。

译文:________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

7.[答案] (1)盗贼张敌万在这中间建造巢穴,赵立坚决不跟他往来,所以楚州运粮的道路更加阻塞。

(2)五次用书信催促(刘)光世聚集军队,光世最终没有执行。

[解析] 本题考查理解并翻译文中句子的能力。翻译时要注意重要词语及句式。(1)窟穴:名词活用为动词,建造窟穴。窟穴其间:省略句,状语后置句,应为“窟穴于其间”。绝:坚决。(2) 趣:通“促”,催促。讫:最终。

【参考译文】

赵立,徐州张益村人,因为果敢勇武被招募为士兵。靖康初年,金人大举入侵,盗匪群起,赵立多次立有战功,被任命为武卫都虞候。建炎三年,金兵攻打徐州,王复(在徐州)防守、抵御(金兵),命令赵立督战,(赵立)被六支飞箭射中,却越战越勇。徐州城刚刚被攻破时,赵立(和金兵)在街道中对战,抢夺城门想要冲出去,(结果)被金兵击晕过去,半夜时下起了小雨,(赵立)得以苏醒,于是杀掉了(金军)守卫,又暗中联系乡民商讨重新收复(徐州的)计划。(得知)金国的军队向北返回,赵立率领残余士兵阻截追杀,切断了金兵的退路,夺得舟船、黄金、锦帛数以千计,军队的士气又得以振奋。(他)就尽力招募乡民为士兵,(后来)又收复了徐州。

当时山东各郡强盗草莽四起,赵立在暗中帮扶,一时威名流传。此时正值金军左将军昌围困楚州,楚州告急。通守贾敦诗想要用交出城池来降敌,宣抚使杜充命令赵立带领自己的兵马前往解围。(赵立)一边作战一边前进,一连七次战斗都获得胜利,最后到达了楚州。(这时赵立的)两颊都被飞箭射中,不能说话,只能用手指挥,直到进入楚州城,安排将士休息后,才把箭拔出来。(皇上)下诏让赵立坚守楚州。第二年正月,金军(再次)围攻楚州城,赵立命令拆毁废弃的房屋,在城下点燃(这些房屋)形成火池,手下的士兵则持兵刃严阵以待。金军登城时,被钩取后扔到火中。金军组织敢死队突击登城,又被杀尽,(金军)于是逐渐后退撤军。五月,兀术南征北回,筑起六座高台,想要借楚州的道路运送辎重。赵立斩杀了兀术派遣的使者。兀术大怒,于是在楚州南北设立了两个屯兵之处,阻绝了楚州运送粮饷的道路。在承州、楚州之间有樊梁、新开、白马三个大湖,盗贼张敌万在这中间建造巢穴,赵立坚决不跟他往来,所以楚州运粮的道路更加阻塞。(楚州)刚开始被围困的时候,(人们)可以吃一些野草,湖里有水草可采来吃,后来(这些东西)都吃完了,(人们)甚至弄碎榆树皮来吃。

赵立派人向朝廷告急。签书枢密院事赵鼎想要派遣张俊前去解救楚州,张俊不肯前去。于是任命督守淮南各镇的刘光世前往救援楚州。高宗看到了赵立的奏章后,感叹说:“赵立坚守孤城,即使是古代的名将也无人超过他。”五次用书信催促(刘)光世聚集军队,光世最终没有执行。金军知道(赵立的)外援已经断绝,更加紧了围困。九月,(金军)攻东城,赵立在城楼的台阶上观望,火炮击中了他的头部,周围的人赶快将他救下。赵立说:“我再也不能为国杀敌了。”说完(赵立)气绝身亡,当时只有三十七岁。(楚州城的)大街小巷里的人都(为赵立)恸哭。金国的人怀疑赵立假死,不敢轻举妄动。过了十多天,城池才被攻陷。

赵立的家人之前在徐州被诛杀,这次进入楚州的只有赵立自己。(赵立)为人刚烈秉直,没有读过书,(但是)天性忠义。他善于骑射,不喜欢声色财利,所得物品都当作俸禄发放给

士兵。(赵立)每次战斗必定先穿好盔甲身先士卒,(如果发现)有逃遁的士兵,就会揪住并斩掉他。(赵立)仇视金人,谈到金人必定咬牙切齿很是愤怒,所抓到的俘虏也都会斩首示众。远近的人都钦佩赵立的忠义之名并认为自己在他之下,金人都不敢直呼他的名字。

(赵立死后,朝廷)向他的亲友发了报丧的通知,(皇上)停止视朝以志哀,谥号忠烈。

(二)[2014・辽宁卷] 古代诗歌阅读(11分)

阅读下面这首宋词,完成8~9题。

点绛唇・访牟存叟南漪钓隐

周 晋

午梦初回,卷帘尽放春愁去。昼长无侣,自对黄鹂语。

8.“卷帘尽放春愁去”一句,在表达技巧上有何妙处?请结合词句赏析。(5分)

答:________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

8.[答案] 此句采用了比拟(拟物)的手法,化无形为有形,使抽象的春愁变得形象、生动。

[解析] 本题考查分析诗歌的表达技巧的能力。“尽放”采用拟人手法写卷帘,同时词人写“春愁”竟然可以“尽放”,也将无形之“春愁”写得具体可感。答题时,要准确使用术语点明技巧,然后分析其表达效果。

9.此词写春,有人读出了愁,有人读出了喜,请结合全词谈谈你的理解。(6分)

答:________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

9.[答案] 答案一:此词主要表达了春色恼人的孤独惆怅之感。上片抒发了卷帘放愁愁仍在的无奈、缺少诗朋酒侣而自对鸟语

辽宁高考试题及答案

的寂寞之情,下片抒发了大好春光无人欣赏的惋惜、吟诗而未成的遗憾、梨花飘落如雨的怅惘之情。

答案二:此词主要表达了春景无限的欣悦自得之情。上片抒发了卷帘放去春愁的畅快、

落如雨诗意盎然的沉醉之情。

答案三:此词既有孤独惆怅的春愁,又有春景无限的欢欣自得。例如上片有午梦初回浓浓的春愁,也有自对鸟语趣味横生的悠然;例如下片有春在无人处的惊喜,也有梨花飘落如雨的怅惘。

[解析] 本题考查评价古代诗歌的思想内容和作者的观点态度的能力。题干部分已经给出了两个方面的内容――“愁”或“喜”,考生可以选取任意一个角度作答,也可以两者兼而有之。解答时可以分为两步,第一步写出诗歌主要表达的情感(或悲,或喜,或“悲喜”兼有),第二步结合诗歌具体分析。

(三)名篇名句默写(6分)

10.[2014・辽宁卷] 补写出下列名篇名句中的空缺部分。(6分)

(1)潮平两岸阔,风正一帆悬。________,________。(王湾《次北固山下》)

(2)________,不能十步;________,功在不舍。(荀子《劝学》)

(3)故国神游,多情应笑我,早生华发。________,________。(苏轼《念奴娇・赤壁怀古》)

10.[答案] (1)海日生残夜 江春入旧年

(2)骐骥一跃 驽马十驾

(3)人生如梦 一尊还酹江月

篇二:2014辽宁高考英语试题及答案

2014普通高等学校招生全国统一考试(辽宁卷) 英 语

注意事项:

1.本试卷分第卷和第卷两部分。答卷前,考试务必将自己的姓名、准考证号填写在答题卡上。

2.作答时,将答案写在答题卡上。写在本试卷上无效。

3.考试结束后,将本试卷和卡题卡一并交回。

第二部分 阅读理解(共两节,满分40分)

第一节 (共15小题;每小题2分,满分30分)

阅读下列短文,从每题所给的四个选项(A, B, C和D)中.选出最佳选项,

并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。

A

A new study shows students who write notes by hand during lectures perform better on exams than those who use laptops(笔记本电脑).

Students arc increasingly using laptops for note-taking because of speed and legibility(清晰度).But the research has found laptop users are less able to remember and apply the concepts they have been taught.

Researchers performed experiments that aimed to find out whether using a laptop increased the tendency to make notes "mindlessly" by taking down word for word what the professors said

In the first experiment, students were given either a laptop or pen and paper .They listened to the same lectures and were told to use their usual note-taking skills. Thirty minutes after the talk , they were examined on their ability to remember facts and on how well they understood concepts.

The researchers found that laptop users took twice as many notes as those who wrote by hand. However, the typists performed worse at remembering and applying the concepts. Both groups scored similarly when it came to memorizing facts.

The researchers' report said, "While more notes are beneficial, if the notes are taken mindlessly, as is more likely the case on a laptop, the benefit disappears."

In another experiment aimed at testing long-term memory, students took notes as before but were tested a week after the lecture. This time, the students who wrote notes by hand performed significantly better on the exam.

These two experiments suggest that handwritten notes are not only better for immediate learning and understanding, but that they also lead to superior revision in the future. A. write more notes B. digest concepts better

C. get higher scoresD. understand lectures better A. skillfulB. mindless

C. thoughtfulD. tireless A. examine the importance of long-term memory

B. stress the benefit of taking notes by hand

C. explain the process of taking notes

D. promote the use of laptops

24. The passage is likely to appear in .

A. a newspaper advertisement B. a computer textbook

C. a science magazine D. a finance report

B

(Q = Question; A = Answer)

Situation I

Q: If someone sits right next to me in an empty movie theater, is it rude to move? A: Maybe, but nobody will fault you for it. Chances are that close sitter doesn't realize he disturbs you, so he may miss your annoyance. You undoubtedly aren't the first person he's met who needs enough room. Forgive his bad judgment, move quietly and enjoy the show.

Situation II

Q: If I use the bathroom at a store, do I need to buy something?

A: Consider frequency and urgency. Is this a one-time or an emergency? If so, you don't have to buy anything, but it would be kind if you did. However, if you regularly use the bathroom at this place, then you are a customer, and you should act like one.

Situation III

Q: If someone is talking loudly on the bus, is there a nice way to ask him to keep it down?

A: No. Try other means.1) Stare at him until he gets aware of it and quiets down. 2) Lift your finger in a silence motion(动作)and smile. 3) Put on earphones and ignore him.

Situation IN

Q: If I remember my friend's birthday a day late, should I apologize or just wish her a happy birthday like nothing happened?

A:short for: "Well, I know I forgot, but then I remembered. Forgive me and happy birthday."

Situation V

Q: Can I lie about seeing a text because I was too busy or lazy to respond(回复) to it? A: Don't lie. Receiving a text does not mean you need to respond to it. Why waste a perfectly good lie when the truth will serve? "Yes," you can say if ever asked, "I saw it." No explanation is needed as to why you don't respond.

25.A. a person is too active

B. a person is too rude to you

C. a person talks too loudly

D. a person sits too close to you

26. How will you quiet someone down in a public place?

A. By making fun of him continuously.

B. By looking purposefully at him.

C. By talking to him directly.

D. By pointing angrily at him. A. predictedB. returnedC. cancelledD. delayed

28. What is the passage mainly about?

A. Modern ways to mind your manners.

B. Different ways to change others' manners.

C. Proper manners to offer help to others.

D. Good manners to talk to people.

C

Would it surprise you to learn that, like animals, trees communicate with each other and pass on their wealth to the next generation?

UBC Professor Simard explains how trees are much more complex than most of us

ever imagined. Although Charles Darwin thought that trees are competing for survival survive through their co-operation and support, passing around necessary nutrition "depending on who needs it".

Nitrogen (氮) and carbon are shared through miles of underground fungi (真菌) networks, making sure that all trees in the forest ecological system give and receive just the right amount to keep them all healthy. This hidden system works in a very similar way to the networks of neurons (神经元) in our brains, and when one tree is destroyed, it affects all.

Simard talks about "mother trees", usually the largest and oldest plants on which all other trees depend. She explains how dying trees pass on the wealth to the next generation, transporting important minerals to young trees so they may continue to grow. When humans cut down "mother trees" with no awareness of these highly complex "tree societies" or the networks on which they feed, we are reducing the chances of survival for the entire forest. into the young trees before dying, but we never give them chance." If we could put across the message to the forestry industry, we could make a huge difference towards our environmental protection efforts for the future.

29. The underlined sentence "the opposite is true" in Paragraph 2 probably means A. compete for survival

B. protect their own wealth

C. depend on each other

D. provide support for dying trees A. look the largest in size in the forest

B. pass on nutrition to young trees

C. seem more likely to be cut down by humans

D. know more about the complex "tree societies" A. how "tree societies" work

B. how trees grow old

C. how forestry industry develops

D. how young trees survive

32. What would be the best title for the passage?

A. Old Trees Communicate Like Humans

B. Young Trees Are In Need Of Protection

C. Trees Are More Awesome Than You Think

D. Trees Contribute To Our Society

D

Travis is the manager of G&G where he is responsible for forty employees (雇员)and profits (利润) of over $2 million per year. He's never late to work. He does not get upset on the job. When one of his employees started crying after a customer screamed at her, Travis took her away. "Your working uniform is your shelter," he told her. "Nothing anyone says will ever hurt you. You will always be as strong as you want to be."

Travis picked up that lecture in one of his G&G training courses, an education program that began on his first day and continues throughout an employee's occupation. The training has, Travis says, changed his life. G&G has taught him how to live, how to focus, how to get to work on time, and how to master his emotions (情绪). Most importantly, it taught him willpower.

At the center of that education is an extreme focus on an all-important habit; willpower. Dozens of cases show that willpower is the single most important habit for a person's success.

And the best way to strengthen willpower is to make it into a habit. "Sometimes it looks like people with great self-control aren't working hard―but that's because they've made it automatic," Angela Duckworth, one of the University of Pennsylvania researchers said. "Their willpower occurs without them having to think about it."

篇三:2014年高考辽宁英语试题及答案-(word版)

2014普通高等学校招生全国统一考试(辽宁卷)

英 语

注意事项:

1.本试卷分第卷和第卷两部分。答卷前,考试务必将自己的姓名、准考证号填写在答题卡上。

2.作答时,将答案写在答题卡上。写在本试卷上无效。

3.考试结束后,将本试卷和卡题卡一并交回。

第二部分 阅读理解(共两节,满分40分)

第一节 (共15小题;每小题2分,满分30分)

阅读下列短文,从每题所给的四个选项(A, B, C和D)中.选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。

A

A new study shows students who write notes by hand during lectures perform better on exams than those who use laptops(笔记本电脑).

Students arc increasingly using laptops for note-taking because of speed and legibility(清晰度).But the research has found laptop users are less able to remember and apply the concepts they have been taught.

Researchers performed experiments that aimed to find out whether using a laptop increased the tendency to make notes "mindlessly" by taking down word for word what the professors said

In the first experiment, students were given either a laptop or pen and paper .They listened to the same lectures and were told to use their usual note-taking skills. Thirty minutes after the talk , they were examined on their ability to remember facts and on how well they understood concepts.

The researchers found that laptop users took twice as many notes as those who wrote by hand. However, the typists performed worse at remembering and applying the concepts. Both groups scored similarly when it came to memorizing facts.

The researchers' report said, "While more notes are beneficial, if the notes are taken mindlessly, as is more likely the case on a laptop, the benefit disappears."

In another experiment aimed at testing long-term memory, students took notes as before but were tested a

week after the lecture. This time, the students who wrote notes by hand performed significantly better on the exam.

These two experiments suggest that handwritten notes are not only better for immediate learning and understanding, but that they also lead to superior revision in the future.

21. More and more students favor laptops for note-taking because they can . .

A. write more notesB. digest concepts betterC. get higher scoresD. understand lectures better

22. While taking notes, laptop users tend to be .

A. skillful B. mindlessC. thoughtful D. tireless

23. The author of the passage aims to .

A. examine the importance of long-term memoryB. stress the benefit of taking notes by hand

C. explain the process of taking notesD. promote the use of laptops

24. The passage is likely to appear in ..

A. a newspaper advertisementB. a computer textbookC. a science magazineD. a finance report

B

(Q = Question; A = Answer)

Situation I

Q: If someone sits right next to me in an empty movie theater, is it rude to move?

A: Maybe, but nobody will fault you for it. Chances are that close sitter doesn't realize he disturbs you, so he may

miss your annoyance. You undoubtedly aren't the first person he's met who needs enough room. Forgive his

bad judgment, move quietly and enjoy the show.

Situation II

Q: If I use the bathroom at a store, do I need to buy something?

A: Consider frequency and urgency. Is this a one-time or an emergency? If so, you don't have to buy anything, but

it would be kind if you did. However, if you regularly use the bathroom at this place, then you are a

customer,

and you should act like one.

Situation III

Q: If someone is talking loudly on the bus, is there a nice way to ask him to keep it down?

A: No. Try other means.1) Stare at him until he gets aware of it and quiets down. 2) Lift your finger in a silence

motion(动作)and smile. 3) Put on earphones and ignore him.

Situation IV

Q: If I remember my friend's birthday a day late, should I apologize or just wish her a happy birthday like nothing

happened?

A: This is the reason why the word belated was invented. "Happy belated birthday!" is short for: "Well, I know I

forgot, but then I remembered. Forgive me and happy birthday."

Situation V

Q: Can I lie about seeing a text because I was too busy or lazy to respond(回复) to it?

A: Don't lie. Receiving a text does not mean you need to respond to it. Why waste a perfectly good lie when the

truth will serve? "Yes," you can say if ever asked, "I saw it." No explanation is needed as to why you don't

respond.

25. You will get annoyed in a theater when ..

A. a person is too active B. a person is too rude to you

C. a person talks too loudly D. a person sits too close to you

26. How will you quiet someone down in a public place?

A. By making fun of him continuously. B. By looking purposefully at him.

C. By talking to him directly.D. By pointing angrily at him.

27. The underlined word "belated" in Situation IV probably means .

A. predictedB. returnedC. cancelledD. delayed

28. What is the passage mainly about?

A. Modern ways to mind your manners. B. Different ways to change others' manners.

C. Proper manners to offer help to others.D. Good manners to talk to people.

C

Would it surprise you to learn that, like animals, trees communicate with each other and pass on their wealth to the next generation?

UBC Professor Simard explains how trees are much more complex than most of us ever imagined. Although Charles Darwin thought that trees are competing for survival of the fittest, Simard shows just how wrong he was. In fact, the opposite is true: trees survive through their co-operation and support, passing around necessary nutrition "depending on who needs it".

Nitrogen (氮) and carbon are shared through miles of underground fungi (真菌) networks, making sure that all trees in the forest ecological system give and receive just the right amount to keep them all healthy. This hidden system works in a very similar way to the networks of neurons (神经元) in our brains, and when one tree is destroyed, it affects all.

Simard talks about "mother trees", usually the largest and oldest plants on which all other trees depend. She explains how dying trees pass on the wealth to the next generation, transporting important minerals to young trees so they may continue to grow. When humans cut down "mother trees" with no awareness of these highly complex "tree societies" or the networks on which they feed, we are reducing the chances of survival for the entire forest.

"We didn't take any notice of it" Simard says sadly. "Dying trees move nutrition into the young trees before dying, but we never give them chance." If we could put across the message to the forestry industry, we could make a huge difference towards our environmental protection efforts for the future.

29. The underlined sentence "the opposite is true" in Paragraph 2 probably means that trees .

A. compete for survival B. protect their own wealth

C. depend on each other D. provide support for dying trees

30. "Mother trees" are extremely important because they .

A. look the largest in size in the forest B. pass on nutrition to young trees

C. seem more likely to be cut down by humans D. know more about the complex "tree societies"

31. The underlined word "it" in the last paragraph refers to

A. how "tree societies" work B. how trees grow old

C. how forestry industry develops D. how young trees survive

32. What would be the best title for the passage?

A. Old Trees Communicate Like HumansB. Young Trees Are In Need Of Protection

C. Trees Are More Awesome Than You ThinkD. Trees Contribute To Our Society

D

Travis is the manager of G&G where he is responsible for forty employees (雇员)and profits (利润) of over $2 million per year. He's never late to work. He does not get upset on the job. When one of his employees started crying after a customer screamed at her, Travis took her away. "Your working uniform is your shelter," he told her. "Nothing anyone says will ever hurt you. You will always be as strong as you want to be."

Travis picked up that lecture in one of his G&G training courses, an education program that began on his first day and continues throughout an employee's occupation. The training has, Travis says, changed his life. G&G has taught him how to live, how to focus, how to get to work on time, and how to master his emotions (情绪). Most importantly, it taught him willpower.

At the center of that education is an extreme focus on an all-important habit; willpower. Dozens of cases show that willpower is the single most important habit for a person's success.

And the best way to strengthen willpower is to make it into a habit. "Sometimes it looks like people with great self-control aren't working hard―but that's because they've made it automatic," Angela Duckworth, one of the University of Pennsylvania

researchers said. "Their willpower occurs without them having to think about it."

The company spent millions of dollars developing programs of study to train

employees on self-control. Managers wrote workbooks that serve as guides to how to make willpower a habit in workers' lives. Those courses arc, in part, why G&G has grown from a sleepy company into a large

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